Immunization, also known as vaccination, is the process of giving a vaccine to an individual to protect them from a specific infectious disease. Vaccines contain weakened or killed versions of the disease-causing organism, or pieces of it, which stimulate the body’s immune system to produce a response that prepares it to fight off the disease.

When a person receives a vaccine, the immune system recognizes the disease-causing organism as foreign and produces specific antibodies to fight it. These antibodies remain in the body and provide long-lasting immunity against

the disease. Immunization is a highly effective way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, and it has led to the eradication of some diseases such as smallpox.

Immunization is typically given through injection, but some vaccines can be given orally or nasally. The timing and schedule of immunizations depend on the type of vaccine and the individual’s age and health status. In general, immunizations are recommended for infants, children, and adults to protect against a range of infectious diseases. Vaccination is considered one of the most important public health interventions, and it has helped to reduce the incidence and severity of many diseases worldwide.